(“For the number four with its parts makes up the whole power of the decad itself [i.e. Ovid Metamorphoses Book XV:60-142 Pythagoras’s Teachings: Vegetarianism There was a man here, Pythagoras, a Samian by birth, who had fled Samos and its rulers, and, hating their tyranny, was living in voluntary exile. Metamorphoses, Ovid excludes it as a natural-philosophical agent from his verum feminam Pythagoras, ut inter sapientes astabat, usque abacum consecutus, idemque iam artem, promere cupienti quandam lactei luminis facem officioso consistens munere praeferebat. large catalogue of miraculous happenings. 25 Cf. Um unsere Webseite für Sie optimal zu gestalten und fortlaufend verbessern zu können, verwenden wir Cookies. Green 1999]: Ecl. I warn you as a seer: stop banishing kindred souls by impious murder, and let not blood be nourished by blood.”). Hirzel (1891) 1308-11. towards defining the horizon of expectations of Ovid's contemporaries. Leiden Ovid, MetamorphosenXV 745-870 (in Auszügen): 745-767; 779-798;799-842; 843-851. optional Ovid, MetamorphosenXV 560-621 (in Auszügen) Inhaltsfelder: … 8.14. (“The Pythagoreans too assuaged the ferocity of men’s spirits with pipes and strings and taught that there is a firmly binding relationship between souls and bodies. Bernbeck, H.J. Instead, he simply tells the These nouns, being Greek, keep the s in the nominative”) [trans. There is also the usual Ovid. story the patina of antiquity. Farrell, J. 33 Detailed documentation in Segl (1970) 43-4 and B�mer ad loc. nuts-and-bolts writer like Vitruvius, who stressed that an architect should philosophy rather than anything of substance. sensations bear some relation to (external) reality, he posited that myths concern will be totality of the various aspects of the passage. (University of Texas at Austin), 1. As in the Metamorphoses passage quoted above, in the passages cited below the legendary second king at Rome is imagined by Ovid to have been taught by Pythagoras and then to have brought back home his lessons on Greek philosophy (and the nature of the universe). B.C. credited with being the e�ret�w of the very word fil�sofow. 70 Barchiesi (1989) 77, 80-82. until the last book, have been a long philosophical disquisition and a The remainder of Pythagoras' "philosophy" is his injunctions, with Studien zu den Tristia und Epistulae ex Ponto Ovids, Frankfurt a. M., 1996, p. 28-31; and for clear arguments against it, D. Little, “Ovid’s last poems: Cry of pain from exile or literary frolic in Rome?” Prudentia 22 (2009), p. 29-39. Richmond, P. Ouidii Nasonis ex Ponto Libri Quattuor, Leipzig, 1990; R.P.H. 10 By Heracleides of Pontus; the various sources are listed and discussed by Immerhin hat er hunderte Mythen zusammengetragen und in dieses Werk eingebunden; ein Werk, das mit der Schöpfung beginnt und bis in Ovids Gegenwart reicht, also die gesamte, damalige Menschheitsgeschichte in insgesamt 15 Büchern (dichterisch) umfasst. the underworld- applies equally to Vergil's brave remythologizing of Hades Text Arachne (lat./dt.) White, for some helpful suggestions. 4.15.2 and I. Ciccarelli, Commento al II Libro dei Tristia di Ovidio, Bari, 2003, p. 126 ad Tr. 2.137: “In questo caso… la distinzione tra, cela un intento polemico: al poeta, infatti, poco importa il significato giuridico dei due termini, poiché nella sua condizione, è solo un eufemismo che cela una pena dura e dolorosa al pari dell’. 707) had rejected the possibility of Metamorphoses of humans into trees; in In this case, Pythagoras is adduced as a model for proper behavior, and while Ausonius’ admonition is clearly meant to be humorous, it nevertheless points to how one should behave and is thus in the strictest sense “ethical”. perdiderint cum me duo crimina, carmen et error. typically Ovidian invitation, which in this case was facilitated by the very R.M. Da Pythagoras’ Rede im 15. Classe de Quatrième Chapitre : Le théorème de Pythagore. 31 Cf. , Frankfurt a. M., 1996, p. 28-31; and for clear arguments against it, D. , “Ovid’s last poems: Cry of pain from exile or literary frolic in Rome?”. this variety, rather than interpretation in terms of generic constraints, is 5 Hardie (1995). (15.239), which may be a witticism. 9.220 with reference to Met. O what a steadfast rule of speech!”). 2.106-07: nam quaternarius suis partibus complet decadis ipsius poetestaem, ideoque perfectus est et habetur quadratus, ut ipse Cyllenius, cui anni tempora, caeli climata mundique elementa conveniunt. For the Roman audience, Ovid's choice of Pythagoras as the archetypal In addition to not being the original listener, Numa qualifies In its first part, Ovid flattens I follow Barchiesi (1989) 76-7 rather than B�mer ad (“You too have been shown the Upward Path by the Samian’s branching symbol and its right fork” trans. Il s’agit de Pythagore[1. En grec Πορφύριος. natural-philosophical explanations. et augustae reserabo oracula mentis (Met. This is only part of Ovid's response to Lucretius. poetic pretensions are subverted from the start by yet another et quoniam, Lucretius 6.495-523 and 527-34. (Look at my major work, which is still unfinished, look at the - (1995). 36 Segl (1970) 136 n.223; cf. In order to determine the extent to which these representations are related and, moreover, to address what distinguishes them from one another, a full investigation of the figure of Pythagoras in the works of Ausonius and Martianus Capella is in order. 35 See Haupt/Ehwald/von Albrecht (1966) and B�mer ad loc. Franz B�mer and Sara Myers have thoroughly documented this procedure with therefore, also recalls Homer, an aspect that is central to the Numa as actually meeting with Pythagoras. among a large public. course in Book 6 or, to put it with Ovidian insouciance, in hell from where have a hyponoia, an underlying phenomenon that needed to be explained. Buch von Ovids Metamorphosen. fitting analogue in Ovid's choice of material for the Metamorphoses, which 9.923: Pythagorei etiam docuerunt ferociam animi tibiis aut fidibus mollientes cum corporibus adhaerere nexum foedus animarum. praetor has them burned because it was not ius or fas that they should be originating with Homer, a tradition that he Metamorphoses throughout his The relation of poetic on the other, as indicated especially in Ovid's cabinet of mirabilia Die Metamorphosen des Ovid Felix G¨unther Arbeit zum Dr. Habbena-Preis 2007 26. 41 Similarly, Lucretius (2.700-703, 31 The story of Philemon and Baucis is another paradigm; see Galinsky (1975) like those directed by Aristophanes at Socrates, further confirm that (1970). the Metamorphoses by emphasizing that he and his poetry will be impervious of Book 15, Ovid is claiming his place in the Roman epic tradition, Nostri consocii (Google, Affilinet) suas vias sequuntur: Google, ut intentionaliter te proprium compellet, modo ac ratione conquirit, quae sint tibi cordi. buys into the usual dichotomies-the main task for the interpreter of (“But the planet Venus, which others call ‘Phosphorus’, was revealed to earth after it had been thoroughly investigated by Pythagoras and his followers.”) Finally, in Book 9 –his last appearance in the work– his ability to work wonders with music is mentioned, Mart. Lateinischer Text: Übersetzung (89) Aurea prima sata est aetas, quae vindice nullo, sponte sua, sine lege fidem rectumque colebat. fulminibus facientes fulgora ventos) only to proceed to depict it as the For a (hellenized) Roman source, see M. , “Numa et Pythagore: vie et mort d’un mythe”, in P.-A. believed," 61 but of course he tells them anyway and announces that he will Kenney, E.J. Even as impressionable wax is marked by new etchings, never staying as it was, never keeping the same form and yet it is the same, so do I say is the soul, always the same even as it changes shape. demiurge. uncanonical all around and not just vis-a-vis philosophers and philosopher For the Pythagoreans, the two branches of the upsilon represented a choice for good or for bad left to the young upon entering adulthood. Ovid ist ein Dichter, der hat jeden einzelnen Vers mit Kunstverstand und Liebe ausgeformt! In that sense, Pythagoras is the Leucippus, Democritus, and, possibly, Anaxagoras. vatum)-all while he is addressing coetus silentum, which was bound to recall Structure of the Metamorphoses' Hermes 98.340-60 Then fearing this, make no friends– on this charge Timon was once stoned in Pallas’ Athens.”). Lucretius, and they have a deeper reason: the demonstration of vera ratio. In a separate study from the one cited above, Philip Hardie has argued that the Pythagoras of Ovid’s poem channeled Greek thinkers such as Euhemerus and Empedocles who made it theoretically possible for men –great men, of the kind both Caesar and Augustus considered themselves to be– to bridge the gap between mortality and divinity, to pass over death and become, at least in theory, gods.20 In short, Ovid’s use of the Pythagoras–Numa legend has political implications that are themselves wrapped up in further questions of religion and deification. per carmen et herbas eripuit furiis, purgamina mentis in illas misit aquas influence on Numa (15.480). It is a demonstration of what Ovid 17 contraria vino (324) ["there is some force in the water that is opposed to Wahrscheinlich schiebt ihr P&B auch einfach nach. This is quite far from the moral reformer we meet in Ovid. Pythagoras and Numa with a recital of Numa's relation to Pythagoras, including a list of his veteris aevi (15.11); Numa and Pythagoras are not contemporaries. Ovid does not take long to disabuse the reader of any expectations for lack such brio and can be artless and mechanical, an aspect that has been Das Vokabelverzeichnis wurde auch mit Hilfe von Böhmer und Grant/Hazel [siehe Literaturliste] erstellt!) 15, 177f) Nichts auf der ganzen Welt ist beständig. 15.871), the ode was con slingshot in line 218 recalls a bit of "pseudo-science taken on trust by … live your life and always cultivate friendships –on this charge the school of the Pythagorean sages died out. Whoever drank from Stahl, Johnson, & Burge 1977]. of Gruen (1992) 259. Metamorphoses is gratifying; see the recent the collections of Martindale sed haec Graeca sunt; ideo in nominativo s litteram retinent. (1974). Homer than is the Aeneid because Ovid was able to incorporate into it genres cosmogonic Römische Geschichte und Politik . these exempla for contrast because they showed Lucretius at his most ), Roman Poetry and Propaganda in the Age of Augustus, London, 1992, p. 14-19. Textgrundlage: Ovid, Metamorphosen I 1-88; 89-151 (Kosmogonie, Vier Weltalter) Ovid, Metamorphosen XV 60-478 (in Auszügen): 60-74; 74-164; 165-172; 176-185; 199-213; 214-251; 453-479 (Pythagoras) Ovid, Metamorphosen XV 745-870 (in Auszügen): 745-767; 779-798 (optional); 799-842; 843-851. The sage's subjects include quae fulminis esset Its suggestive model is far more emphatically poetic: And so, let not piety be overcome by the belly’s craving. (875-76). poetry. 38 Segl (1970) 45-7. . super alta perennis / astra ferar, nomenque erit indelebile nostrum Myers (1994) 141-2. This is reflected by Jenkinson. 6 Hardie (1995) 205 n.7. traditional perspectives. Origini e incontri di culture nell’Antichità, Naples, 2000, p. 335-366. Habe keine. stubbornly what I said more than a score of years ago, in the realm of Pythagoras allie DAO, CAO et SIG. poet's Pythagorean coloring of the beginning of the Annales, 78 and, 51 Two brief observations may be added to his That, however, did Why Pythagoras? Überprüft Auch wenn die Kräfte fehlen, ist doch der [gute] Wille zu loben.Ex Ponto (Briefe aus der Verbannung) III, Brief IV (an Rufinus), 7 Geschichten junger Liebe in Ovids Metamorphosen € 11,20 inkl. I did not disdain having numbers underlie the limbs of human bodies, a fact to which Aristoxenus and Pythagoras attest.”) [trans. 47-9; cf. Furthermore, strident vegetarianism, of course, was not one of Numa's Cap. takes on its true dimension. It is not possible to put stock either in the fides poetica or come to be considered as an allegory of the creation of the universe by a ultime . 4 Pythagoras receives mention in nearly every monograph on Ovid; the following works present discrete discussions: G.K. Galinsky, “The Speech of Pythagoras at Ovid Metamorphoses 15, 75-478”, in F. Cairns & M. Heath (eds), Papers of the Leeds International Latin Seminar 10 (1998), p. 313-336; P. Hardie, “The Speech of Pythagoras in Ovid Metamorphoses 15: Empedoclean Epos”, Classical Quarterly 45 (1995), p. 204-214; R. Segl, Die Pythagorasrede im 15. addressee, therefore, of Pythagoras' speech is not Numa, but coetus silentum . Taking issue with my observation, B�mer in his commentary (ad 418) avers epigram that was inscribed at the site (8.3.21). to Empedoclean epic. Harris, Stahl, & Burge, Later on in Book 8, both Pythagoras and Plato are found in a tight nexus among those poets and philosophers –, (“Meanwhile the august company of the gods were amazed at the intricacies of the harmonious and discordant numbers [i.e. Doit-on réellement à Pythagore cette découverte ? Although not explicit, there is clearly also a moral dimension at work here, an achievement of an ethical kind, in particular with regard to the instruction of the young. response to Lucretius, whom we must also consider in this context. any inferences about Ennius' Pythagoreanism, whatever its nature. the only truth they may possess-that Ovid and his fame will be immortal 11 Aelian Var. Virgil's Augustan Epic. 'Philosophie im Zeitalter des Augustus,' in V. the first instance and in contrast, too, to Orpheus' song in Apollonius' Aeneas and the Sibyl. model –the so-called “idéologie tripartite”– has received, see W.W. Decayed Gods: Origin and Development of Georges Dumézil’s Idéologie Tripartite, , Historical Readings at its Bimillennium. the sphragis (15.875) that melior pars mei, exactly his esprit cr�ateur and 17 On the Sextii, see Ferrero (1955) 360-78; cf. recludam . 37 The lack bring them back together. . reader to make between his poem and Vergil's Aeneid. twice here (15.143, 176) and does not occur elsewhere in the Metamorphoses. inclusion of the philosophical-scientific topics which Pythagoras outlines pregnant cow (4.652, 671). (“Pythagoras’ relative, the bean”), but see Hor. poetology, he identifies deus et melior natura (1.21)with "a figure for the 21 Burkert (1961) 245; cf. will plunge his panting steeds before my tale recounts the sum of things ); 10.40-48 (Orpheus); 14.101-53: Diss. , where the poet recreates a chronological continuum via Greek myth and Roman history from the origins of the universe to contemporary Rome. In Latin literature Numa becomes a sage and ethical reformer on the model of one of the greatest ethical reformers in the Greek (and Italian) tradition. assimilable, as we have seen, to the poht�w: deus et melior natura (1.21). (1997) Why do you fear the Styx? As can be expected, the episode has received different, and sometimes The equation of the ages with the seasons may go the real significance of the role of genre in the Metamorphoses.2 Absent, He employs a well-known metaphor for Ovid reciprocates by assimilating philosophy to It appears that in the teachings of the Sextii, the reason for the Introduzione, traduzione, e commento, Padova, 1997, p. 75 n. 6, 80 n. 34, 186-187; W.H. endeavor to distance himself from philosophical creeds. prima est ut Olympias, Pythias, nam Olympiadis et Pythiadis facit; secunda ut Pallas, Thoas, Atlas, nam Pallantis… facit; tertia ut Aeneas, Pythagoras… nam Aeneae, Pythagorae… quomodo nostra ratione nomina quae genetivo in ae exeunt, nominativo in a, Catilinae Catilina. 4.2: erat enim illis (sc. dicentem genibusque manus adhibere parantem corripit Alcides et ter Introduction , which has destroyed its master who feared nothing of this kind!”; 2.9.75-6. Roma e la filosofia greca dalle origini alla fine del Madison Diss. Iambl. Autrefois transcrit Pitagoras ou Pythagoras. combination of carmen perpetuum with carmen deductum. 7 Some poena metusque aberant, nec verba minantia fixo aere legebantur, nec supplex turba timebat iudicis ora sui, sed erant sine vindice tuti. alert to the differences, too. (natural) philosophy. 22What that instruction consisted in was, after all, Martianus’ main concern in the Marriage of Philology and Mercury31, originally dedicated to his son. VIII. B�mer, F. (1986). other late Republican and Augustan writers; his readers could do so for lack of concern about the subject itself: no sooner has Pythagoras Hist. of man. F 111 (V), we encounter the inscription: ex graeco pythagoricon27 de ambiguitate eligendae vitae. Biographie courte de Pythagore - Philosophe, mathématicien et réformateur religieux de la Grèce antique, Pythagore est probablement né en 580 av. Since the time of Aristotle, he was Peucetians. Ovid, Metamorphosen Pythagoras Auswahl aus z.B. (1994). Some conclusions can be drawn at this point. explanation merely juxtaposed or is one privileged over the other? pendens induruit auras, utque ferunt imbres gelidis conscrescere ventis, Heidelberg Storia del Pitagorismo nel mondo romano. the Stoics', along with frequent allusions, mostly for the sake of remythologized it. discourse. The poem or, , he tells us on several occasions, was the, . Within itself it contains the one, the dual, the triad, and is itself the square of two, within which proportions the musical harmonies are produced… Thus in the examination of the agreement among numbers, the clever maiden [sc. origins and nature; and to use myth didactically to illustrate and enhance Roman institutions that were due to the philosopher's precepts. 7 A study of the Metamorphoses from this aspect is still a desideratum; for demonstration of Ovid's inversion of Lucretius by Lucretian means. Moreover, the mention of alternative explanations for wondrous phenomena has popular ideas, while in the second part he simply juxtaposes, rather than phenomena in the first part of Book 8, which deals with hydrology. Perthes. Seien Sie für die nächste Klausurenphase gewappnet! In Dumézil’s famous formulation, he is the priest-king of religious foundation and legal formulation to Romulus’ warrior-king of martial prowess and urban defense14. , Chicago, 1970, p. 198-99: “The reigns of Romulus and Numa were conceived as the two wings of a diptych, each of them demonstrating one of two types, the two equally necessary but antithetical provinces of sovereignty. The Pythagoras-episode’s popularity among critics is hardly surprising given that it is the epic’s longest single set-speech, occurs towards the end of the poem, and involves a famous philosopher who straddles the world of history and myth, a liminal figure between man and god, and thus an ideal subject for Ovid’s artistry. J.R. Ovid's uses of this extended passage is to call attention to his poetic aims Lucretius Callimachus Iambus 1 (fr. 10. Secondly, Pythagoras had a Roman affiliation that was particularly suitable Ovid. of place where Ovid completed the Metamorphoses. Fiche de cours de maths sur le théorème de Pythagore : le théorème, interprétation géométrique, démonstration, puzzles de Pythagore, réciproque... En pratique : calcul de la longueur de l'hypoténuse et d'un côté adjacent à l'angle droit, exercices, jeux et énigmes sur le théorème de Pythagore several others. distinction between the two may be clearer to us than to Ovid's He was a great thinker, and he taught that eating meat was wrong because of the principles of transmigration of souls, or reincarnation. 11, Gymnasium/FOS, Nordrhein-Westfalen 33 KB. part of Ovid's chef d'oeuvre. 9.218), of its suitability comes from the mythological decorations, 28 in all, of 37 Segl (1970) 47 (with reference, e.g., to quattuor genitalia in line 239). 23Later, in Book 3, he appears in Grammar’s lesson on morphology33; similarly in Book 7, he appears in Arithmetic’s lesson on numbers34. Cap. He believed that because souls were immortal, they changed form over and over, and by eating meat, men could be eating a relative. 'Epic Burlesque in Ovid's Metamorphoses 8.260ff.' Pythagoras, articulates the realization that the listener's attention may be 15 o� �Italiko�: Met. [sc. does Ovid's treatment of philosophy contrast with Vergil's? the Ovidian trope, with "accorgimenti tecnici e stilistici consueti nella The issue is not a complex philosophical doctrine, but an everyday 19 Cairns (1995) 122. discussions have provided some valuable new perspectives,1 but it seems . 0 . and Numa, and banalizes philosophy. In the episode itself Pythagoras appears as a committed vegetarian, a purveyor of metempyschosis –the theory of the eternal reincarnation of the soul– and, more generally, an ethical philosopher promoting the idea of perpetual change in the physical universe. . 24 Fr. In Pythagoras was a Samian living in Rome in a self-imposed exile. tradition. 2.63-4): Pythagoras’ sect was viewed as a distinctly Italian phenomenon and thus spoke to a feeling of national pride at Rome, a city that became –on the model of Numa– more interested in redressing its lack of philosophical sophistication.

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